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IGNOU Ethics : For UPSC Exam PDF Book

IGNOU Ethics : For UPSC Exam PDF Book


Name of Book :  Ethics / आचार विचार 

Hope This Ethics Book will Step up you to Succeed / आशा करते हैं आचार विचार पुस्तक आपके कदम सफलता की ओर ले जायगी

Language of Book : English

Size of Ebook : 2.65 MB

Total pages in ebook : 180

Ebook Downloading Status  : Best 
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Description about eBook : INTRODUCTION

Let us begin our study of Nature and Scope of Ethics by understanding what we mean by moral law. But two things need to be clarified before we raise the question with which we are concerned here. First, the moral law is called ‘law’ only metaphorically, or if one prefers, analogically. The primary meaning of law is “a rule of action, promulgated by him/her who is in charge of a community in view of the common good”. This is called positive law. If the legislator is considered to be God, it is divine positive law; if the legislator is human person, and it is human positive law. Human positive law can further be subdivided according to what the common good aimed at. (e.g. civil law, criminal law, commercial law, etc.) In a case, a positive law lays down rules to be observed by human persons. It is prescription. Then there is another sense of ‘law’ which is quite different. In this sense it is a formula expressing a constant of behaviour of things and of persons. So we have physical law (including laws studied in physics, chemistry, biology, etc.), psychological law, sociological law, etc. (Since the constant of behaviour among human persons is less fixed and foreseeable than that among things it is more of a statistical constant). As distinct from positive law, this kind of law is called ‘natural law’. It is descriptive. It can also be called prescriptive to the extent if it is considered as willed by God and includes the divine positive law, and descriptive to the extent that this divine will is the ultimate cause of the constant of behaviour in things and human persons. However, moral law corresponds exactly neither to the positive law nor to the natural law............

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